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发布于:2021-10-20 10:27:13  访问:41 次 回复:0 篇
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Ans. As described previously, observation of cfr genes and pleuromutilin resistance
Enterococcus faecalis is also connected with really Title Loaded From File serious infections like bacteremia, surgical infections, and infectious endocarditis. The infections range from skin and soft tissue to joint and bone infections--and in extra severe cases infection leads to bacteremia and infectious endocarditis. S. aureus accounts for 10?five of all bacteremia in Denmark (47). In current years, the total quantity of bacteremias has been slightly decreasing while bacteremias caused by staphylococci have already been escalating (48, 49). The livestock-associated MRSA CC398 is widespread in Danish swine herds and frequent transfer to humans is well documented (44?6). MRSA CC398 behaves like other S. aureus and was defined as a relevant hazard inside the analysis, since pleuromutilin resistance has been identified both on chromosomes and on plasmids. Coagulase-negative staphylococci may perhaps also be transmitted to humans but are considered a human commensal and not a significant pathogen. Resistance mechanisms may be transmitted from these to other human gram-positive bacte.Ans. As talked about previously, observation of cfr genes and pleuromutilin resistance inside a strain of C. difficile has been reported (28), however the involved isolate was not associated with resistance to metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicine, which are employed to treat human clostridial gastrointestinal infections in Denmark. Additionally, linezolid will not be made use of for remedy of cases with other anaerobic bacteria in Denmark. No normal testing strategies or EUCAST breakpoints for pleuromutilins or linezolid have been defined for anaerobic bacteria, and occurrence of resistance in these pathogens has but to become explored. Due to the lack of resistance information, anaerobe bacteria for instance Clostridia and C. difficile were not incorporated as hazards within this threat assessment. In enterobacteriaceae, no resistance mechanisms associated to pleuromutilin happen to be reported, in spite of experimental studies suggesting a hypothetical possibility (40). Enterobacteriaceae had been hence excluded from this analysis. Enterococci have already been confirmed to become transmitted from either live animals or meat to man and do quickly exchange resistance genes inside the genera (41?three). Enterococci frequently bring about urinary tract infections in humans. Enterococcus faecalis is also linked with serious infections like bacteremia, surgical infections, and infectious endocarditis. Enterococcus faecium is usually deemed a commensal with incredibly low pathogenicity, but catheter-related infections and infectious endocarditis have beendescribed. Serious infections with enterococci occur primarily in immunocompromised individuals, and in these sufferers the mortality is higher. Because 2013, 1 outbreak as a consequence of a clonal spread of a VRE E. faecium has been observed in hospitals in the capital region of Denmark and within the region of Zealand. The incidence of this VRE clone has been steeply increasing, which suggests that value of linezolid in remedy may also raise inside the future. Enterococcus spp. have been as a result defined as a relevant hazard in our analysis, in spite of higher uncertainty due to lack of surveillance information. It was incorporated, mainly because both resistant strains and their relevant resistance genes may well spread from pigs to humans, as well as the consequences of development of linezolid resistance in Enterococcus spp. could be hugely severe (30, 36). Staphylococci are known to spread from pigs to humans in persons regularly handling these animals, and extensive study has been carried out around the transmission of S. aureus (44?six).
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