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Ring exposure to high environmental temperatures and following high-intensity physical exercise. Physique
3V, third ventricle; MSH, -melanocyte stimulating hormone; AgRP, agouti-related peptide; GABA, -aminobutyric acid; MC4R, melanocortin four receptor; NPY, neuropeptide Y; POMC, pro-opiomelanocortin. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006188.gMany findings more than the past two decades have begun to reveal the mechanisms by which AgRP neurons and POMC neurons regulate meals intake [5] (Fig 1). POMC neurons are stimulated by appetite-suppressing hormones, including leptin [91], released from adipocytes in proportion to fat retailers [12], as well as by visual and olfactory cues about food availability [13,14].Ring exposure to higher environmental temperatures and following high-intensity exercising. Physique temperature also rises throughout a fever, a pathological situation that may reduce appetite for various days. Though good progress has been produced within the past two decades to elucidate the neural bases of thermosensation [4] and appetite [5,6], the biological mechanisms by which warmer physique temperatures suppress meals intake are unknown. A number of organ systems are involved in appetite regulation; however, the motivation to consume is in the end controlled by the brain [5,6]. Various distinct populations of neurons in the brain measure hormones and nutritional aspects in the blood, neural signals in the digestive program, and sensory signals in the environment, such as visual and olfactory cues, to sustain power Piperlongumine Apoptosis homeostasis and a perfect body weight. Maybe the brain area most studied in the central regulation of meals intake may be the arcuate nucleus from the hypothalamus, which resides adjacent for the third ventricle (Fig 1) [5]. The arcuate nucleus contains two populations of neurons that oppositely regulate appetite: a population that expresses agouti-related peptide (AgRP)--a secreted neuropeptide that stimulates food intake [7]--and a population that expresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)--a protein that is cleaved into multiple secreted neuropeptides, like -melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), which suppresses meals intake [8].PLOS Biology https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2006188 May perhaps 7,1/Fig 1. Manage of meals intake by the arcuate nucleus with the hypothalamus. (A) Sagittal diagram of a rodent brain displaying AgRP neurons (green) and POMC neurons (red) in the arcuate nucleus. Dashed vertical line shows coronal plane depicted in B. (B) Coronal diagram of a rodent brain showing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons inside the arcuate nucleus adjacent towards the 3V.Ring exposure to high environmental temperatures and following high-intensity exercising. Body temperature also rises during a fever, a pathological situation that will reduce appetite for various days. Even though excellent progress has been created within the past two decades to elucidate the neural bases of thermosensation [4] and appetite [5,6], the biological mechanisms by which warmer physique temperatures suppress food intake are unknown. Multiple organ systems are involved in appetite regulation; even so, the motivation to consume is eventually controlled by the brain [5,6]. Many distinct populations of neurons inside the brain measure hormones and nutritional variables inside the blood, neural signals from the digestive technique, and sensory signals from the atmosphere, such as visual and olfactory cues, to keep energy homeostasis and a perfect physique weight. Probably the brain area most studied inside the central regulation of food intake may be the arcuate nucleus on the hypothalamus, which resides adjacent for the third ventricle (Fig 1) [5].
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